IT news online – Fujitsu quantum simulator evaluates vulnerability of RSA cipher system to potential threat of quantum computer cryptography

JCN Newswire
2023-01-23

TOKYO, Jan. 23, 2023 — (JCN Newswire) — With issues rising surrounding the potential risk quantum computing poses to present cryptographic strategies, Fujitsu in the present day revealed that it has carried out profitable experiments evaluating the broadly used RSA cipher(1) for its potential for vulnerability. To crack the code by quantum computer systems.

Fujitsu carried out the experiments in January 2023 utilizing a 39-qubit quantum simulator to evaluate how tough it will be for quantum computer systems to crack present RSA encryption, utilizing Shor(2)’s algorithm to find out the assets wanted to carry out such a job. Fujitsu researchers have found {that a} fault-tolerant quantum pc (3) on a scale of about 10,000 qubits and a couple of.23 trillion quantum gates could be required to crack RSA — far past the capabilities of even probably the most superior quantum computer systems on the planet in the present day. The researchers additional estimated that it will be essential to carry out a fault-tolerant quantification of about 104 days to efficiently break RSA.

Whereas the analysis reveals that the constraints of present quantum computing expertise preclude the opportunity of this risk occurring within the brief time period, Fujitsu will proceed to guage the potential affect of more and more highly effective quantum computer systems on cryptographic safety, in addition to the eventual want for highly-resistant cryptography. Dr. Tetsuya Izu, Senior Director of Knowledge and Safety Analysis at Fujitsu Ltd. and Distinguished Engineer at World Fujitsu, commented: “Our analysis exhibits that quantum computing doesn’t pose a direct risk to present encryption strategies. Nonetheless, we can’t be complacent both. The world wants to begin In getting ready now for the chance that quantum computer systems might in the future transform the way in which we take into consideration safety.”

With plans to spice up its quantum simulator efficiency to 40 qubits by the primary quarter of fiscal 2023, and lately revealed plans to construct a 64-qubit superconducting quantum pc in fiscal 2023 in collaboration with RIKEN, Fujitsu stays on the forefront of analysis and growth on this vital space.

Fujitsu will current elements of the findings on the 2023 Symposium on Cryptography and Info Safety (SCIS 2023) to be held from Tuesday, January 24 to Friday, January 27, 2023, in Kitakyushu Metropolis, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan and on-line.

background

RSA, a broadly used commonplace encryption algorithm, is a safe means to make sure confidentiality and knowledge integrity for digital interactions together with sending and receiving bank card info in on-line purchasing and exchanging messages in SNS.

The RSA encryption scheme relies on the truth that parsing a big integer is tough. Since in the present day’s computer systems can parse advanced numbers as much as 829 bits (4), consultants imagine that the RSA encryption scheme with a key size of 2048 bits (5) will stay safe with respect to future enhancements in computing capabilities.

Regardless of this, there are nonetheless issues that when out there, fault-tolerant quantum computer systems might be able to analyzing enormous advanced numbers, thus posing a possible risk to RSA cryptography. Which means that in the future, it’ll change into needed to modify from the RSA cipher system to various applied sciences similar to post-quantum cryptography. Within the absence of related experiments, estimating the computational assets required for quantum computer systems to carry out integer factorization of 2048-bit advanced numbers stays a tough job, and the timing of the transition to various applied sciences stays unclear.

On assessing the integrity of RSA cryptography utilizing a quantum simulator

To deal with these points, Fujitsu carried out issue evaluation experiments to verify the integrity of the RSA cipher utilizing a 39-qubit Fujitsu quantum simulator developed in September 2022.
In the course of the experiments, Fujitsu applied a general-purpose program utilizing Shore’s algorithm on a quantum simulator to generate a quantum circuit that converts the enter advanced quantity into prime elements. In consequence, Fujitsu analyzed 96 RSA integers (product of two totally different odd primes) from N = 15 to N = 511, and confirmed that general-purpose software program might generate quantum integer circuits.

Utilizing the above general-purpose software program, Fujitsu has additionally produced quantum circuits that parse a number of advanced numbers from 10 bits to 25 bits, and estimated the assets required for the circuits to quantum wanted to parse 2048 bits of advanced numbers from the computed assets. In consequence, Fujitsu discovered that roughly 10,000 qubits, 2.23 trillion quantum gates, and a quantum circuit with a depth (6) of 1.80 trillion bits have been required to issue a fancy variety of 2048 bits. This equates to 104 days of computation utilizing a fault-tolerant quantum pc. Since a quantum pc that may function stably and on such a big scale is not going to be achieved within the brief time period, Fujitsu’s checks quantitatively show that the RSA cipher is safe in opposition to Shore’s algorithm in the intervening time.

In the course of the experiments, Fujitsu used its quantum simulator to make the most of the high-speed computing energy of the A64FX supercomputer Fugaku 7 CPU and Fujitsu’s huge parallel computing expertise. By utilizing a cluster system primarily based on the 512-node Fujitsu supercomputer “FUJITSU Supercomputer PRIMEHPC FX700”, that includes an A64FX CPU, and a newly developed expertise that robotically and effectively rearranges the state info of qubits, Fujitsu achieved a velocity enhance of greater than 100 occasions that of a system with out rearranged at 64 nodes, and managed to carry out N=253 issue evaluation in 463 seconds, which beforehand took 16 hours.

(1) RSA Encryption System:
Named for its builders Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, the cryptographic system makes use of a non-public key for decryption and a public key for encryption. Even when the encryption key’s made public, solely these with the non-public key can correctly obtain the data as a result of issue in parsing.
(ii) Shore Algorithm:
A quantum algorithm developed in 1994 by Peter Shore, a theoretical pc scientist and mathematician in the USA, which may carry out appropriate factorization at excessive velocity.
(iii) Fault-tolerant quantum pc:
A quantum pc shouldn’t be constrained by qubit noise or an higher restrict on the variety of quantum gates. It’s utilized in performing theoretical evaluation.
(4) Present computer systems can parse advanced numbers as much as 829 bits:
Supply: [Cado-nfs-discuss] RSA-250 parser (archive.org)
(5) Key size:
The important thing size within the cipher system. Within the RSA cipher system, the important thing size is the bit size of the advanced quantity used because the decryption key and the encryption key. When utilizing the RSA encryption scheme, it is strongly recommended to set the important thing size to 2048 bits or extra.
(vi) Depth:
The variety of steps required to carry out the quantum computation in a quantum circuit.
(7) Fugaku supercomputer:
A pc collectively developed by RIKEN and Fujitsu because the successor to the Okay pc. It started full operation in March 2021. From June 2020 to November 2021, it ranked first in 4 classes within the supercomputer rankings for 4 consecutive intervals.

About Fujitsu

Fujitsu’s objective is to make the world extra sustainable by constructing belief in society by way of innovation. Because the digital transformation associate of selection for purchasers in additional than 100 international locations, our 124,000 staff work to resolve a few of humanity’s biggest challenges. Our portfolio of providers and options relies on 5 key applied sciences: computing, networking, synthetic intelligence, knowledge and safety, and convergent applied sciences, which we convey collectively to attain sustainable transformation. Fujitsu Restricted (TSE: 6702) reported consolidated income of three.6 trillion yen (US$32 billion) for the fiscal 12 months ending March 31, 2022 and stays the primary digital providers firm in Japan by market share. Discover out extra: www.fujitsu.com.

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