Genetic discovery could lead to better treatments for the common tumor in dogs


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Newly discovered commonalities and genetic differences between the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma, a common and fatal tumor, could pave the way for more accurate diagnosis and better treatments in the future.

Using next-generation sequencing techniques and computational methods, a team of researchers and veterinarians at Washington State University examined genetic makeup Among the three most common subtypes of tumor He identified several therapeutic targets that may form the basis of new treatments. They detailed their findings in a study published in the journal PLUS ONE.

“The different subtypes of Len tissue Sarcomas can look so similar that even trained pathologists find it difficult to distinguish one from the other. However, it turns out they’re not all the same — they are a very diverse group of cancers, said Eric Shelden, associate professor in WSU’s School of Molecular Biosciences and corresponding author of the study.

As many as 95,000 dogs in the United States are diagnosed with this cancer each year, and 20% to 30% die from the disease. There are several subtypes of sarcomas, however, because they show similar characteristics and are difficult to diagnose, they are similarly treated and are often unsuccessful.

Rance Ceylon, a veterinary oncologist at Washington State University and co-author of the study, said the study results suggest that a “one-size-fits-all” treatment approach may not be right for patients, and clinicians may need to work closely. Work with veterinary pathologists to identify tumor subtypes for a more accurate diagnosis and to investigate and identify the most effective treatment options.

“From a clinical point of view, the results of this study suggest that perhaps our view of this type of tumor should be changed, and we should look to better differentiate the different subtypes, ultimately with the goal of better defining treatment and prognosis,” he said.

Previous studies examined the possible causes of soft tissue sarcoma and looked at genetic markers to identify soft tissue sarcoma subspecies. However, the Washington State University study was the first to examine gene expression patterns in canine soft tissue tumors using RNA-sequencing analysis of tumor samples to distinguish tumors, understand the biology that drives their behavior and identify candidates Pharmacological treatments.

“We looked at thousands of genes and their expression patterns simultaneously, and then tried to detect that there were computational differences between the different types of tumors, and there are differences,” Shelden said. “While it will likely take a few years before the impact of this study is actually felt in the Clinical settingThe hope is that this will make people realize that you shouldn’t just treat these tumors similarly because they are in fact biologically different.”

Schelden said follow-up studies are needed to validate the findings and determine the most appropriate drugs to treat different tumors.

Sealon estimated that WSU Veterinary Teaching Hospital sees one or two dogs per week with soft tissue sarcoma. He noted that tumors can be difficult to treat, and prognosis varies based on a number of variables, such as tumor size and grade. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor followed by radiotherapy.

“Surgical treatment can be difficult, or impossible, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as these tumors are notorious for localized invasive behavior that can make it difficult to obtain ‘clean’ surgical margins, which are edges that contain an adequate amount of normal tissue surrounding the tumor.” the edges of the tumor,” Ceylon said. “Radiation therapy can be effective in treating residual disease, but for some dogs, recurrence can still be observed after surgery and radiotherapy. “

In addition to Sheldon and Ceylon, co-authors include postdoctoral scientist Lydia Lamm and Senior Scientific Assistant Mark Wildung in the School of Molecular Biosciences at WSU. Oncologists Tien Tien and Janean Fidel in the Department of Veterinary and Clinical Sciences at WSU; and Professor Laura White at the Washington Animal Diagnostic Laboratory.

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more information:
Lydia Lam et al, A complete comparative analysis of gene expression in three types of soft tissue sarcoma in dogs, PLUS ONE (2022). DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0273705

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